Greece is a parliamentary republic with a head of government - the prime minister - who has the most political power, and the head of state - the president - whose duties are largely ceremonial. The executive power is exercised by the government.
Trade and economy
The most important sectors of Greece’s economy in 2020 were wholesale and retail trade, transport, accommodation and food services (23.8%), public administration, defence, education, human health and social work activities (21.6%) and real estate activities (15.9%).
Intra-EU trade accounts for 57% of Greece’s exports (Italy 11% and Germany 8%), while outside the EU 4% go to Turkey and 4% to the United States.
In terms of imports, 57% come from EU Member States (Germany 12% and Italy 9%), while outside the EU 8% come from China and 6% from Russia.
Greece in the EU
Council of the EU
In the Council of the EU, national ministers meet regularly to adopt EU laws and coordinate policies. Council meetings are regularly attended by representatives from the Greek government, depending on the policy area being addressed.
Presidency of the Council of the EU
The Council of the EU doesn't have a permanent, single-person president (like e.g. the Commission or Parliament). Instead, its work is led by the country holding the Council presidency, which rotates every 6 months.
During these 6 months, ministers from that country's government chair and help determine the agenda of Council meetings in each policy area, and facilitate dialogue with the other EU institutions.
Dates of Greek presidencies:
Jul-Dec 1983 | Jul-Dec 1988 | Jan-Jun 1994 | Jan-Jun 2003 | Jan-Jun 2014
The Commission is represented in each EU country by a local office, called a "representation".
European Economic & Social Committee
Greece has 12 representatives on the European Economic and Social Committee. This advisory body – representing employers, workers and other interest groups – is consulted on proposed laws, to get a better idea of the possible changes to work and social situations in member countries.
European Committee of the Regions
Greece has 11 representatives on the European Committee of the Regions, the EU's assembly of regional and local representatives. This advisory body is consulted on proposed laws, to ensure these laws take account of the perspective from each region of the EU.
Permanent representation to the EU
Greece also communicates with the EU institutions through its permanent representation in Brussels. As Greece's "embassy to the EU", its main task is to ensure that the country's interests and policies are pursued as effectively as possible in the EU.
Budgets and Funding
How much does Greece pay and receive?
How much each EU country pays into the EU budget is calculated fairly, according to means. The larger your country's economy, the more it pays – and vice versa.
The EU budget doesn't aim to redistribute wealth, but rather focuses on the needs of Europeans as a whole.
Figures on the EU budget, revenue and spending:
EU-funded projects in Greece
The money paid into the EU budget by Greece helps fund programmes and projects in all EU countries - like building roads, subsidising researchers and protecting the environment.
Find out more about how Greece benefits from EU funding.