Poland is a parliamentary republic with a head of government - the prime minister - and a head of state - the president. The government structure is centred on the council of ministers. The country is divided into 16 provinces, largely based on the country’s historic regions. Administrative authority at provincial level is shared between a government-appointed governor, an elected regional assembly and an executive elected by the regional assembly.
Trade and economy
The most important sectors of Poland’s economy in 2020 were wholesale and retail trade, transport, accommodation and food services (24.9%), Industry (24.2%) and public administration, defence, education, human health and social work activities (15.3%).
Intra-EU trade accounts for 74% of Poland’s exports (Germany 29%, Czechia 6% and France 5%), while outside the EU 6% go to the United Kingdom and 3% from both Russia and the United States.
In terms of imports, 67% come from EU Member States (Germany 27%, the Netherlands 6% and Italy 5%), while outside the EU 10% come from China and 4% from Russia.
Poland in the EU
Council of the EU
In the Council of the EU, national ministers meet regularly to adopt EU laws and coordinate policies. Council meetings are regularly attended by representatives from the Polish government, depending on the policy area being addressed.
Presidency of the Council of the EU
The Council of the EU doesn't have a permanent, single-person president (like e.g. the Commission or Parliament). Instead, its work is led by the country holding the Council presidency, which rotates every 6 months.
During these 6 months, ministers from that country's government chair and help determine the agenda of Council meetings in each policy area, and facilitate dialogue with the other EU institutions.
Dates of Polish presidencies:
The Commission is represented in each EU country by a local office, called a "representation".
European Economic & Social Committee
Poland has 21 representatives on the European Economic and Social Committee. This advisory body – representing employers, workers and other interest groups – is consulted on proposed laws, to get a better idea of the possible changes to work and social situations in member countries.
European Committee of the Regions
Poland has 21 representatives on the European Committee of the Regions, the EU's assembly of regional and local representatives. This advisory body is consulted on proposed laws, to ensure these laws take account of the perspective from each region of the EU.
Permanent representation to the EU
Poland also communicates with the EU institutions through its permanent representation in Brussels. As Poland's "embassy to the EU", its main task is to ensure that the country's interests and policies are pursued as effectively as possible in the EU.
Budgets and Funding
How much does Poland pay and receive?
How much each EU country pays into the EU budget is calculated fairly, according to means. The larger your country's economy, the more it pays – and vice versa.
The EU budget doesn't aim to redistribute wealth, but rather focuses on the needs of Europeans as a whole.
Figures on the EU budget, revenue and spending:
EU-funded projects in Poland
The money paid into the EU budget by Poland helps fund programmes and projects in all EU countries - like building roads, subsidising researchers and protecting the environment.
Find out more about how Poland benefits from EU funding.