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Capital: Bucharest

Official EU language(s): Romanian

EU member country: since 1 January 2007

Currency: Romanian Leu RON. Romania has committed the euro once it fulfils the necessary conditions.

Schengen: Romania is currently in the process of joining the Schengen area.

FiguresGeographical size - population - gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in PPS

Political system

Romania is a semi-presidential republic with a head of government - the prime minster - and a head of state - the president. Executive functions are held by both government and the president. The country is divided into 41 counties and the municipality of Bucharest. Each county is administered by a county council, responsible for local affairs, and a prefect responsible for administering national affairs at county level.

Location on the EU map

Trade and economy

The most important sectors of Romania’s economy in 2020 were industry (21.7%), wholesale and retail trade, transport, accommodation and food services (19.7%) and public administration, defence, education, human health and social work activities (16.5%).

Intra-EU trade accounts for 74% of Romania’s exports (Germany 23%, Italy 11% and France 7%), while outside the EU 3% go to Turkey and the United Kingdom.

In terms of imports, 74% come from EU Member States (Germany 21%, Italy 9% and Hungary 7%), while outside the EU 6% come from China and 4% from Turkey.

Romania in the EU

European Parliament

There are 33 members of the European Parliament from Romania. Find out who these MEPs are.

European Parliament office in Romania

Council of the EU

In the Council of the EU, national ministers meet regularly to adopt EU laws and coordinate policies. Council meetings are regularly attended by representatives from the Romanian government, depending on the policy area being addressed.

Presidency of the Council of the EU

The Council of the EU doesn't have a permanent, single-person president (like e.g. the Commission or Parliament). Instead, its work is led by the country holding the Council presidency, which rotates every 6 months.

During these 6 months, ministers from that country's government chair and help determine the agenda of Council meetings in each policy area, and facilitate dialogue with the other EU institutions.

Dates of Romanian presidencies:

Jan-June 2019

Presidency of the Council of the EU

Current presidency of the Council of the EU

European Commission

The Commissioner nominated by Romania to the European Commission is Adina-Ioana Vălean, who is responsible for Transport.

The Commission is represented in each EU country by a local office, called a "representation".

Commission representation in Romania

European Economic & Social Committee

Romania has 15 representatives on the European Economic and Social Committee. This advisory body – representing employers, workers and other interest groups – is consulted on proposed laws, to get a better idea of the possible changes to work and social situations in member countries.

European Committee of the Regions

Romania has 15 representatives on the European Committee of the Regions, the EU's assembly of regional and local representatives. This advisory body is consulted on proposed laws, to ensure these laws take account of the perspective from each region of the EU.

Permanent representation to the EU

Romania also communicates with the EU institutions through its permanent representation in Brussels. As Romania's "embassy to the EU", its main task is to ensure that the country's interests and policies are pursued as effectively as possible in the EU.

Budgets and Funding

How much does Romania pay and receive?

How much each EU country pays into the EU budget is calculated fairly, according to means. The larger your country's economy, the more it pays – and vice versa.
The EU budget doesn't aim to redistribute wealth, but rather focuses on the needs of Europeans as a whole. 

Figures on the EU budget, revenue and spending:

EU-funded projects in Romania

The money paid into the EU budget by Romania helps fund programmes and projects in all EU countries - like building roads, subsidising researchers and protecting the environment.

Find out more about how Romania benefits from EU funding.