Ireland is a parliamentary republic consisting of 26 counties. The head of government - the prime minister - is appointed by the president after nomination by the Lower House (Dail) and exercises executive power. The head of state - the president - mostly has ceremonial powers. The Parliament has 2 chambers (an Upper and Lower House).
Trade and economy
The most important sectors of Ireland’s economy in 2020 were industry (38.3%), information and communication (17.4%) and public administration, defence, education, human health and social work activities (10.5%).
Intra-EU trade accounts for 41% of Ireland’s exports (Belgium and Germany 11%), while outside the EU 30% go to the United States and 9% to the United Kingdom.
In terms of imports, 38% come from EU Member States (France 11% and Germany 9%), while outside the EU 27% come from the United Kingdom and 13% from United States.
Ireland in the EU
Council of the EU
In the Council of the EU, national ministers meet regularly to adopt EU laws and coordinate policies. Council meetings are regularly attended by representatives from the Irish government, depending on the policy area being addressed.
Presidency of the Council of the EU
The Council of the EU doesn't have a permanent, single-person president (like e.g. the Commission or Parliament). Instead, its work is led by the country holding the Council presidency, which rotates every 6 months.
During these 6 months, ministers from that country's government chair and help determine the agenda of Council meetings in each policy area, and facilitate dialogue with the other EU institutions.
Dates of Irish presidencies:
Jan-Jun 1975 | Jul-Dec 1979 | Jul-Dec 1984 | Jan-Jun 1990 | Jul-Dec 1996 | Jan-Jun 2004 | Jan-Jun 2013
The Commission is represented in each EU country by a local office, called a "representation".
European Economic & Social Committee
Ireland has 9 representatives on the European Economic and Social Committee. This advisory body – representing employers, workers and other interest groups – is consulted on proposed laws, to get a better idea of the possible changes to work and social situations in member countries.
European Committee of the Regions
Ireland has 8 representatives on the European Committee of the Regions, the EU's assembly of regional and local representatives. This advisory body is consulted on proposed laws, to ensure these laws take account of the perspective from each region of the EU.
Permanent representation to the EU
Ireland also communicates with the EU institutions through its permanent representation in Brussels. As Ireland's "embassy to the EU", its main task is to ensure that the country's interests and policies are pursued as effectively as possible in the EU.
Budgets and Funding
How much does Ireland pay and receive?
How much each EU country pays into the EU budget is calculated fairly, according to means. The larger your country’s economy, the more it pays – and vice versa.
The EU budget doesn’t aim to redistribute wealth, but rather focuses on the needs of Europeans as a whole.
Figures on the EU budget, revenue and spending:
EU-funded projects in Ireland
The money paid into the EU budget by Ireland helps fund programmes and projects in all EU countries - like building roads, subsidising researchers and protecting the environment.
Find out more about how Ireland benefits from EU funding.