Official EU language(s): Romanian
EU member country: since 1 January 2007
Currency: Romanian Leu RON. Romania has committed the euro once it fulfils the necessary conditions.
Schengen: Romania is currently in the process of joining the Schengen area.
Romania is a semi-presidential republic with a head of government - the prime minster - and a head of state - the president. Executive functions are held by both government and the president. The country is divided into 41 counties and the municipality of Bucharest. Each county is administered by a county council, responsible for local affairs, and a prefect responsible for administering national affairs at county level.
Trade and economy
The most important sectors of Romania’s economy in 2018 were industry (26.1%), wholesale and retail trade, transport, accommodation and food services (20.2%) and public administration, defence, education, human health and social work activities (14.5%).
Intra-EU trade accounts for 77% of Romania’s exports (Germany 23%, Italy 11% and France 7%), while outside the EU 3% go to Turkey and 2% to the United States.
In terms of imports, 75% come from EU Member States (Germany 20%, Italy 9% and Hungary 7%), while outside the EU 5% come from China and 4% from Turkey.
Romania in the EU
Council of the EU
In the Council of the EU, national ministers meet regularly to adopt EU laws and coordinate policies. Council meetings are regularly attended by representatives from the Romanian government, depending on the policy area being addressed.
Presidency of the Council of the EU
The Council of the EU doesn't have a permanent, single-person president (like e.g. the Commission or Parliament). Instead, its work is led by the country holding the Council presidency, which rotates every 6 months.
During these 6 months, ministers from that country's government chair and help determine the agenda of Council meetings in each policy area, and facilitate dialogue with the other EU institutions.
Dates of Romanian presidencies:
The Commission is represented in each EU country by a local office, called a "representation".
European Economic & Social Committee
Romania has 15 representatives on the European Economic and Social Committee. This advisory body – representing employers, workers and other interest groups – is consulted on proposed laws, to get a better idea of the possible changes to work and social situations in member countries.
European Committee of the Regions
Romania has 15 representatives on the European Committee of the Regions, the EU's assembly of regional and local representatives. This advisory body is consulted on proposed laws, to ensure these laws take account of the perspective from each region of the EU.
Permanent representation to the EU
Romania also communicates with the EU institutions through its permanent representation in Brussels. As Romania's "embassy to the EU", its main task is to ensure that the country's interests and policies are pursued as effectively as possible in the EU.
Budgets and Funding
How much does Romania pay and receive?
How much each EU country pays into the EU budget is calculated fairly, according to means. The larger your country's economy, the more it pays – and vice versa.
The EU budget doesn't aim to redistribute wealth, but rather focuses on the needs of Europeans as a whole.
2018 figures for Romania:
- Total EU spend in Romania – € 4.865 billion
(equivalent to 2.45 % of the Romanian economy)
- Total contribution to EU budget – € 1.655 billion
(equivalent to 0.83 % of the Romanian economy)
More figures on the EU budget, revenue and spending:
EU-funded projects in Romania
The money paid into the EU budget by Romania helps fund programmes and projects in all EU countries - like building roads, subsidising researchers and protecting the environment.
Find out more about how Romania benefits from EU funding.