Germany is a federal parliamentary republic with a head of government - the chancellor - and a head of state - the president - whose primary responsibilities are representative. The country comprises 16 states which each have their own constitution and are largely autonomous regarding their internal organisation. 3 of these are city-states: Bremen, Berlin and Hamburg.
Trade and economy
The most important sectors of Germany’s economy in 2020 were industry (23.4%), public administration, defence, education, human health and social work activities (19.4%) and wholesale and retail trade, transport, accommodation and food service activities (15.8%).
Intra-EU trade accounts for 53% of Germany’s exports (France 8% and the Netherlands 7%), while outside the EU 9% go to the United States and 8% to China.
In terms of imports, 64% come from EU Member States (the Netherlands 14%, France, Poland and Belgium 6%), while outside the EU 8% come from China and 5% from the United States.
Germany in the EU
Council of the EU
In the Council of the EU, national ministers meet regularly to adopt EU laws and coordinate policies. Council meetings are regularly attended by representatives from the German government, depending on the policy area being addressed.
Presidency of the Council of the EU
The Council of the EU doesn't have a permanent, single-person president (like e.g. the Commission or Parliament). Instead, its work is led by the country holding the Council presidency, which rotates every 6 months.
During these 6 months, ministers from that country's government chair and help determine the agenda of Council meetings in each policy area, and facilitate dialogue with the other EU institutions.
Dates of German presidencies:
Jul-Dec 1958 | Jul-Dec 1961 | Jul-Dec 1964 | Jul-Dec 1967 | Jul-Dec 1970 | Jan-Jun 1974 | Jul-Dec 1978 | Jan-Jun 1983 | Jan-Jun 1988 | Jul-Dec 1994 | Jan-Jun 2007 | July-Dec 2020
The Commission is represented in each EU country by a local office, called a "representation".
European Economic & Social Committee
Germany has 24 representatives on the European Economic and Social Committee. This advisory body – representing employers, workers and other interest groups – is consulted on proposed laws, to get a better idea of the possible changes to work and social situations in member countries.
European Committee of the Regions
Germany has 23 representatives on the European Committee of the Regions, the EU's assembly of regional and local representatives. This advisory body is consulted on proposed laws, to ensure these laws take account of the perspective from each region of the EU.
Permanent representation to the EU
Germany also communicates with the EU institutions through its permanent representation in Brussels. As Germany's "embassy to the EU", its main task is to ensure that the country's interests and policies are pursued as effectively as possible in the EU.
Budgets and Funding
How much does Germany pay and receive?
How much each EU country pays into the EU budget is calculated fairly, according to means. The larger your country's economy, the more it pays – and vice versa.
The EU budget doesn't aim to redistribute wealth, but rather focuses on the needs of Europeans as a whole.
Figures on the EU budget, revenue and spending:
EU-funded projects in Germany
The money paid into the EU budget by Germany helps fund programmes and projects in all EU countries - like building roads, subsidising researchers and protecting the environment.
Find out more about how Germany benefits from EU funding.